||Thai chilli peppers contain capsaicinIn specific cases the claims of synergy
and multifunctionality have been supported by science. The open question is
how widely both can be generalized. Herbalists would argue that cases of synergy
can be widely generalized, on the basis of their interpretation of evolutionary
history, not necessarily shared by the pharmaceutical community. Plants are
subject to similar selection pressures as humans and therefore they must develop
resistance to threats such as radiation, reactive oxygen species and microbial
attack in order to survive. Optimal chemical defenses have been selected for
and have thus developed over millions of years.Human diseases are
multifactorial and may be treated by consuming the chemical defences that they
believe to be present in herbs. Bacteria, inflammation, nutrition and ROS
(reactive oxygen species) may all play a role in arterial disease.
Herbalists claim a single herb may simultaneously address several of these
factors. Likewise a factor such as ROS may underly more than one condition.
In short herbalists view their field as the study of a web of relationships
rather than a quest for single cause and a single cure for a single condition.
The chili pepper, chilli pepper, or chili, is the fruit of the plants
from the genus Capsicum, which are members of the nightshade family,
Solanaceae. Even though chilis may be thought of as a vegetable, their
culinary usage is, generally, a spice, the part of the plant that is
usually harvested is the fruit, and botany considers the plant a berry
The name, which is spelled differently in many regions (chili, chile, or
chilli), comes from Nahuatl chīlli via the Spanish word chile. The term
chili in most of the world refers exclusively to the smaller, hot types
of capsicum. The mild larger types are called bell pepper in the United
States, Canada (and sometimes the United Kingdom), sweet pepper in
Britain and Ireland, capsicum in Pakistan India and Australasia, and
paprika in many European countries. Bell peppers are often named simply
by their colour (e.g. green or red pepper).
Chili peppers and their various cultivars originate in the Americas;
they are now grown around the world because they are widely used as
spices or vegetables in cuisine, and as medicine.
The chilli or chili has a long association with Mexican cuisine as later
adapted into Tex-Mex cuisine. Although unknown in Asia until Europeans
introduced it there, chilli or chili has also become a part of the
Korean, Indian, Indonesian, Szechuan, Thai and other cooking traditions.
Its popularity has seen it adopted into many cuisines of the World.
chilli or chilli or chili chilli or chili fruit
The fruit is eaten raw or cooked for its fiery hot flavour which is
concentrated along the top of the pod. The stem end of the pod has most
of the glands that produce the capsaicin. The white flesh, that
surrounds the seeds, contains the highest concentrations of capsaicin.
Removing the seeds and inner membranes is thus effective at reducing the
heat of a pod.
Fresh Indian Green chilli or chilis sold in HAL market, Bangalorechilli
or chili is often sold worldwide as a spice in dried and powdered form.
In the United States, it is often made from the Mexican chile ancho
variety, but with small amounts of cayenne added for heat. In the
Southwest United States, dried ground chilli or chili peppers, cumin,
garlic and oregano is often known as chilli or chili powder. Chipotles
are dry, smoked red (ripe) jalapeños.
chilli or chili peppers are also often used around the world to make a
wide variety of sauces, known as hot sauce, chilli or chili sauce, or
pepper sauce. There are countless recipes.
Indian cooking has multiple uses for chilli or chilis, from snacks like
bajji where the chilli or chilis are dipped in batter and fried to the
notoriously hot vindaloo. chilli or chilis are also dried and roasted
and salted for later use as a side dish for rice varieties like vadam (a
kind of pappad). In Turkish or Ottoman cuisine, chilli or chilis are
widely used where it is known as Kırmızı Biber (Red Pepper) or Acı Biber
(Hot Pepper). Sambal is dipping sauce made from chilli or chili peppers
with many other ingredients such as garlic, onion, shallots, salt,
vinegar and sugar, which is very popular in Indonesia, Malaysia and
Singapore. chilli or chili powder is an important spice in Persian
cuisine and is used moderately in a variety of dishes.
chilli or chilli or chili chilli or chili leaves
The leaves of the chilli or chili pepper plant, which are mildly bitter,
are cooked as greens in Filipino cuisine, where they are called dahon ng
sili (literally "chilli or chili leaves"). They are often used in the
chicken soup dish known as tinola.
In Korean cuisine, the leaves are also used to produce kimchi
In Japanese cuisine,the leaves are cooked as greens, and also cooked in
tsukudani style for preservation.
chilli or chilli or chili Decoration
chilli or chili peppers can also be used decorativelyThere are entire
breeds of chilli or chili pepper which are not intended for consumption
at all, but are grown only for their decorative qualities, generally
referred to as "ornamental peppers". Some of them are too hot for most
common cooking techniques, or simply don't taste good. Some are grown
for both decoration and food. Either way, they tend to have peppers of
unusual shapes or colors. Examples of these include Thai Ornamental,
Black Pearl, Marble, Numex Twilight, and the Medusa pepper. is a green
plant which produces fruit starting purple, then ripening to yellow,
orange, and red. Black Pearl has black leaves and round black fruit that
ripen to a bright red. In India, the chilli or chili, along with lime is
used to ward off evil spirits and is often seen in vehicles and in homes
for that purpose. It is also used to check the evil eye and remove its
effects in Hinduism as people will also be asked to spit into a handful
of chilli or chilis kept in that plate, which are then thrown into fire.
If the chilli or chilis make a noise - as they should - then there is no
case of "drishti" (evil eye); if on the other hand they don't make any
sound, then the spell of the evil eye is removed in the fire.
In selecting herbal treatments herbalists may use forms of information that are
not applicable to pharmacists. Because herbs can moonlight as vegetables, teas
or spices they have a huge consumer base and large-scale epidemiological studies
become feasible. Ethnobotanical studies are another source of information. 
For example, when indigenous peoples from geographically dispersed areas use
closely related herbs for the same purpose that is taken as supporting evidence
for its efficacy. Herbalists contend that historical medical
records and herbals are underutilized resources. They favor the use of
convergent information in assessing the medical value of plants. An example
would be when in-vitro activity is consistent with traditional use.
Certain strains of herbalism rely on sources that would be widely considered
unreliable and would not be accepted in a scientifically oriented herbal
journal. These include astrology, the Bible, intuition, dreams, “plant spirits”,